Programming Technologies

This blog discusses the information in the areas shown in the following map for programming techniques.

The details of each are described below.

About Programming Technology

Programming languages provide a means of information between computers and humans. Since the birth of computers, various languages have been invented. In this blog, we will first look at the history of these languages, and then discuss the concepts and applications of structured programming, object-oriented languages, and functional languages, which are trends in the efficiency of programming languages, and then discuss the front-end languages (JavaScript) and back-end languages that have created web technologies. In the back-end languages, machine learning is used.

In the backend languages, we discuss Python and R, which are used for machine learning, and Clojure, which is a functional language for AI.

Detailed information about these languages is given below.

    Programming Technology Overview

    In the following pages of this blog, we begin with an overview of programming languages, starting with “What is a programming language? Then, we will discuss the overview and history of “structured languages,” “object languages,” and “functional languages,” which are the most important paradigms in the history of programming languages, as well as generic programming, which connects mathematics and algorithms, and front-end programming languages, which are at the core of web technology. An overview of front-end programming languages, which are at the root of web technologies, will be presented.

    Clojure and functional programming

    Clojure is a relatively new language, created by Rich Hickey and introduced in 2007. Although new, the language itself is a dialect of the LISP language introduced in 1958, and it is both old and new, running on top of the JVM and able to use legacy JAVA programming language code.

    One of the features of Clojure is that it is a functional language. This is one of the latest trends in the history of programming languages, in which all programs are composed of functional blocks called functions, in contrast to conventional languages such as python and javascript, which are written procedures.

    One of the perspectives in programming language development is to improve reusability. Object-oriented languages, which dominated the market before functional languages, were developed from this perspective, but the idea of structuring programs in blocks of functions further improves reusability.

    In the following pages of this blog, we introduce Clojure, give an overview of the language, introduce some general implementation examples, and describe some examples of implementations in web applications and machine learning, as well as its application to AI technology.

    Python and Machine Learning

    Python will be a general-purpose programming language with many excellent features, such as being easy to learn, easy to write readable code, and usable for a wide range of applications Python was developed by Guido van Rossum in 1991.

    As a relatively new language, Python can utilize a variety of effective programming techniques, including object-oriented programming, procedural programming, and functional programming. It is also widely used in web applications, desktop applications, scientific and technical computing, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and other fields because of the many libraries and frameworks available. Furthermore, Python is cross-platform and runs on many operating systems, including Windows, Mac, and Linux, etc. Because Python is an interpreted language, it does not require compilation and has a REPL-like structure, which speeds up the development cycle.

    In the following pages of this blog provide an overview of the language, reference books, general machine learning applications, and specific implementations of deep learning and other applications of Python.

    Java, Scala and Koltlin, general-purpose application building environments

    Java, which runs on the JVM, was released by Sun Microsystems in 1996, and when Sun Microsystems merged with Oracle in 2010, the copyright was transferred to Oracle, which has continued to develop the language ever since. Since then, it has continued to be developed by Oracle and has become the most widely used language for web applications in the client/server model.

    Until the JVM appeared, programming languages were converted into instructions that could be understood by the CPU through a compiler and then executed. This method of building complex languages made it difficult to accommodate hardware variations. The JVM, on the other hand, enables more flexible and advanced programming by creating a compiled file called Java bytecode and translating it into machine language that the host can understand.

    Using this JVM environment, Scala, JRuby, Java, and Clojure, which run on the same JVM, can maintain a high degree of compatibility.

    In the following pages of this blog provide detailed technical information on Scala and Koltlin running on Java and the JVM environment.

    PHP and Web Frameworks

    PHP is a scripting language that runs on the server side and is primarily used for developing web applications. PHP was developed by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995 and is currently developed and maintained by the open source community.

    PHP is widely used to generate dynamic web pages, manipulate databases, upload and download files, and other functions. Since PHP can be embedded in HTML, it can also be used to execute PHP scripts directly within web pages. It is also widely used as a framework for popular web applications such as WordPress, Joomla, Drupal, etc., because it can run on many operating systems and is easily integrated with many databases and web servers, It is recognized as the language of choice for web application development because it can run on many operating systems and easily integrates with many databases and web servers.

    To further streamline web application development, PHP has software that provides tools and functionality for web applications, called application frameworks, such as Laravel, Symfony, CodeIgniter, and CakePHP.

    In the following pages of this blog, we describe PHP, its language overview, and actual web construction using frameworks such as Composer and Laravel.

    Prolog and Intelligent Information Processing

    Prolog will be one of the two classical languages for symbolic artificial intelligence programming along with Lisp. The language is characterized as a declarative programming language, which means that the program is composed by declaring the definition of the target = “what (what) is to be obtained,” while the process, procedure, or algorithm for obtaining the target = “how (how) is it to be obtained” is described, which is a feature of general procedural programming languages. It does not [1][2]. Here, the declaration of “what you want to get” is not a method to get the output, but a description of the nature of the output and the desired state, and the final realization procedure is delegated to a separate processing system, runtime, framework, or the like.

    In the following pages of this blog provide an overview of the Prolog language, reference books, and its application to knowledge information processing such as expert systems.

    LISP and Artificial Intelligence Technology

    IPL (Information Processing Language), an early functional programming created in 1956, is based on the “lambda calculus” and recursive functions (inductive functions) proposed by Church and Cline in the 1930s. Following these, LISP was born from the research by John McCarthy in 1958. LISP was named after “list processor” because programs themselves are composed of lists, and both data and code are manipulated as lists.

    LISP is both the beginning of functional languages and a highly abstract language, and various early artificial intelligence technologies have been built using LISP.

    In the following pages of this blog provide an overview of the language and concrete implementations of early artificial intelligence techniques (ELIZA, General Problem Solver, automatic prover, etc.) for LISP.

    R Language and Machine Learning

    R was invented in 1933 by Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka of the University of Oakland as a modification of the S language invented by Johm Chambers of Bell Labs. Interactivity was the goal. It has since evolved into a language that can be integrated into systems and tackle complex problems.

    R is now used in the data analysis stack, including data extraction and transformation, model application, inference and estimation, and result plotting and reporting.

    R’s popularity skyrocketed in the late 2000s, spreading beyond academia to banking, marketing, medical, political, genetic, and other industries, and many add-on packages (libraries that extend R’s functionality) have been released.

    In the following pages of this blog discuss various machine learning implementations using this R language.

    C/C++ and Rust

    The C/C++ language is a programming language used in applications on many platforms, from microcomputers to large computers C is a very simple, flexible, and fast-running programming language based on structured programming, and C ++ adds the concept of object-oriented programming to the C language.

    This C++ is also used as a generic program to describe various algorithms. Generic programming is a programming method that appeared in the 1980s, and the Standard Template Library (TL) of C++ was developed in the 1990s. Here, generic programming is a programming technique that focuses on designing algorithms and data structures to make them work in the most common environment without reducing efficiency.

    In the following pages of this blog, we will provide an overview of this C/C++ language, generic programming, and, as a more concrete example, the implementation of various algorithms such as MCMC and graph data.

    Front-end development in Javascript and React

    JavaScript is a programming language used to achieve dynamic behavior of web pages. It was first developed at Netscape in 1995 and is now used for a wide range of applications, including web applications, mobile applications, desktop applications, and server-side It is currently used in a wide range of applications, including web applications, mobile applications, desktop applications, and server-side development.

    The basic operation of JavaScript is to modify the DOM (Document Object Model) of a web page to enable user interaction, data processing on a website, animation, image slideshows, form validation, and more. JavaScript can also read files external to the web page, communicate with servers, and access databases.

    JavaScript includes libraries such as jQuery, Underscore.js, Lodash, Moment.js, D3.js, and Three.js, frameworks such as React.js, Angular.js, Vue.js, Ember.js, Backbone.js There are also programming languages developed as an alternative to JavaScript called AltJS, such as TypeScript, CoffeeScript, Dart, Elm, and ClojureScript.

    In the following pages of this blog provide an overview of the Javascript language, specific implementations used for front-end development, and frameworks such as React.

    Web Design with CSS

    CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is a language for configuring the appearance and layout of HTML, XML, and other documents. CSS enables the centralized management of styles and layouts for websites and applications. To improve the efficiency of CSS development, CSS frameworks such as Bootstrap, Foundation, Materialize, and Bulma, as well as preprocessors such as Sass, Less, and Stylus, are provided as tools.

    In the following pages of this blog, we provide an overview of CSS, concrete implementation examples, and an introduction to Bootstrap, a popular framework.