This blog discusses the information in the areas shown in the following map for programming techniques.
The details of each are described below.
About Programming Technology
In the backend languages, we discuss Python and R, which are used for machine learning, and Clojure, which is a functional language for AI.
Detailed information about these languages is given below.
Programming Technology Overview
In , we begin with an overview of programming languages, starting with “What is a programming language? Then, we will discuss the overview and history of “structured languages,” “object languages,” and “functional languages,” which are the most important paradigms in the history of programming languages, as well as generic programming, which connects mathematics and algorithms, and front-end programming languages, which are at the core of web technology. An overview of front-end programming languages, which are at the root of web technologies, will be presented.
Clojure and functional programming
Clojure is a relatively new language, created by Rich Hickey and introduced in 2007. Although new, the language itself is a dialect of the LISP language introduced in 1958, and it is both old and new, running on top of the JVM and able to use legacy JAVA programming language code.
One of the perspectives in programming language development is to improve reusability. Object-oriented languages, which dominated the market before functional languages, were developed from this perspective, but the idea of structuring programs in blocks of functions further improves reusability.
In , we introduce Clojure, give an overview of the language, introduce some general implementation examples, and describe some examples of implementations in web applications and machine learning, as well as its application to AI technology.
Python and Machine Learning
Python will be a general-purpose programming language with many excellent features, such as being easy to learn, easy to write readable code, and usable for a wide range of applications Python was developed by Guido van Rossum in 1991.
As a relatively new language, Python can utilize a variety of effective programming techniques, including object-oriented programming, procedural programming, and functional programming. It is also widely used in web applications, desktop applications, scientific and technical computing, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and other fields because of the many libraries and frameworks available. Furthermore, Python is cross-platform and runs on many operating systems, including Windows, Mac, and Linux, etc. Because Python is an interpreted language, it does not require compilation and has a REPL-like structure, which speeds up the development cycle.
Java, Scala and Koltlin, general-purpose application building environments
Java, which runs on the JVM, was released by Sun Microsystems in 1996, and when Sun Microsystems merged with Oracle in 2010, the copyright was transferred to Oracle, which has continued to develop the language ever since. Since then, it has continued to be developed by Oracle and has become the most widely used language for web applications in the client/server model.
Until the JVM appeared, programming languages were converted into instructions that could be understood by the CPU through a compiler and then executed. This method of building complex languages made it difficult to accommodate hardware variations. The JVM, on the other hand, enables more flexible and advanced programming by creating a compiled file called Java bytecode and translating it into machine language that the host can understand.
Using this JVM environment, Scala, JRuby, Java, and Clojure, which run on the same JVM, can maintain a high degree of compatibility.
PHP and Web Frameworks
PHP is a scripting language that runs on the server side and is primarily used for developing web applications. PHP was developed by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995 and is currently developed and maintained by the open source community.
PHP is widely used to generate dynamic web pages, manipulate databases, upload and download files, and other functions. Since PHP can be embedded in HTML, it can also be used to execute PHP scripts directly within web pages. It is also widely used as a framework for popular web applications such as WordPress, Joomla, Drupal, etc., because it can run on many operating systems and is easily integrated with many databases and web servers, It is recognized as the language of choice for web application development because it can run on many operating systems and easily integrates with many databases and web servers.
To further streamline web application development, PHP has software that provides tools and functionality for web applications, called application frameworks, such as Laravel, Symfony, CodeIgniter, and CakePHP.
Prolog and Intelligent Information Processing
Prolog will be one of the two classical languages for symbolic artificial intelligence programming along with Lisp. The language is characterized as a declarative programming language, which means that the program is composed by declaring the definition of the target = “what (what) is to be obtained,” while the process, procedure, or algorithm for obtaining the target = “how (how) is it to be obtained” is described, which is a feature of general procedural programming languages. It does not . Here, the declaration of “what you want to get” is not a method to get the output, but a description of the nature of the output and the desired state, and the final realization procedure is delegated to a separate processing system, runtime, framework, or the like.
LISP and Artificial Intelligence Technology
IPL (Information Processing Language), an early functional programming created in 1956, is based on the “lambda calculus” and recursive functions (inductive functions) proposed by Church and Cline in the 1930s. Following these, LISP was born from the research by John McCarthy in 1958. LISP was named after “list processor” because programs themselves are composed of lists, and both data and code are manipulated as lists.
LISP is both the beginning of functional languages and a highly abstract language, and various early artificial intelligence technologies have been built using LISP.
R Language and Machine Learning
R was invented in 1933 by Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka of the University of Oakland as a modification of the S language invented by Johm Chambers of Bell Labs. Interactivity was the goal. It has since evolved into a language that can be integrated into systems and tackle complex problems.
R is now used in the data analysis stack, including data extraction and transformation, model application, inference and estimation, and result plotting and reporting.
R’s popularity skyrocketed in the late 2000s, spreading beyond academia to banking, marketing, medical, political, genetic, and other industries, and many add-on packages (libraries that extend R’s functionality) have been released.
C/C++ and Rust
The C/C++ language is a programming language used in applications on many platforms, from microcomputers to large computers C is a very simple, flexible, and fast-running programming language based on structured programming, and C ++ adds the concept of object-oriented programming to the C language.
This C++ is also used as a generic program to describe various algorithms. Generic programming is a programming method that appeared in the 1980s, and the Standard Template Library (TL) of C++ was developed in the 1990s. Here, generic programming is a programming technique that focuses on designing algorithms and data structures to make them work in the most common environment without reducing efficiency.
Web Design with CSS
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is a language for configuring the appearance and layout of HTML, XML, and other documents. CSS enables the centralized management of styles and layouts for websites and applications. To improve the efficiency of CSS development, CSS frameworks such as Bootstrap, Foundation, Materialize, and Bulma, as well as preprocessors such as Sass, Less, and Stylus, are provided as tools.