ICT technologies

This section discusses information on ICT technology in the areas shown in the map below.

The details of each are described below.

About ICT Technology

Today’s computers have greatly improved in both functionality and capability, and can be made to do many different things. It has truly become a box with unlimited possibilities. Here, we will discuss various ICT technologies (Information and Communication Technology; ICT technology) of computers as the backbone to realize the machine learning and artificial intelligence technologies described in this blog.

    IT Infrastructure Technologies

    Infrastructure originally meant “substructure” (infrastructure is the lower part of a structure, structure is the structure), but the term has since been translated to “equipment and facilities that form the foundation of daily life and industry. In familiar terms, infrastructure includes water, electricity, gas, and other facilities, as well as roads.

    What is infrastructure or IT infrastructure in systems? First of all, systems can be divided into the second level, “application” and “infrastructure,” when broken down into elements, and infrastructure can be divided into “hardware” and “system software” when broken down into elements.

    In the following pages of this blog, we discuss the details of each of these IT infrastructure technologies, including OS, servers, hardware, network, DeveOps, and cloud computing.

    Network Technology

    The Internet, which is the basis of Web technology, began with ARPNET, a system for communicating via multiple computers. The ARPANET was realized in the U.S. in the early 1970s and used packets, which are small pieces of communication data, to be transmitted through multiple machines.

    The Internet Protocol Suite (suite means a set) was developed as a standard technology that is widely used around the world.

    In the following pages of this blog, we will discuss the details of this network technology from a hardware/software perspective.

    Server Technology

    A server refers to a service program that provides HTML and object display to the client software’s web browser in accordance with HTTP, and the server computer on which the service runs. In a broader sense, it refers to programs and computers that communicate with client software via HTTP.

    In the following pages of this blog provide an overview of this server technology, as well as an overview of typical servers such as Apache HTTP Server and nginx and how to set them up.

    Cloud Computing Technology

    Cloud computing is a technology that allows multiple servers to be set up virtually within a single physical server. With the advent of this technology, multiple servers can be operated in the space of one physical server.

    In the following pages of this blog, we will provide an overview of this cloud computing technology, as well as discuss cloud patterns and specific implementations in AWS, automated configuration with Terraform, and container orchestration using Docker technology and Kubernetes.

    Operating Systems (Linux, etc.)

    An operating system is a type of software that manages the entire system, implementing functions for basic management and control of equipment and basic functions that are commonly used by many software programs.

    Its main roles are to manage input/output devices, main memory (main memory), and external storage devices (storage, disk), and to control data communication with other external devices and networks, etc. It starts first when the computer is turned on and continues operating until the power is turned off. It can start and terminate software stored in the storage device based on instructions from the user.

    Software that uses OS functions and runs on top of the OS is called application software (application software). By using the functions provided by the OS, application developers can save time and effort in development and unify operability. In addition, since the OS absorbs minor differences in hardware specifications, software developed for an OS can basically be used on any computer running that OS.

    In the following pages of this blog, provide an overview of this operating system, as well as information on CentOS and Ubuntu, which are representative Linux operating systems, and μTRON and Android, which are embedded operating systems.

    Hardware in Computers

    Computers consist of hardware components such as processors, memory, storage, input devices (keyboard, mouse, etc.), output devices (display, printer, etc.), network interface cards, sound cards, video cards, motherboards, and power supplies.

    In the following pages of this blog, we will discuss the hardware components of these computers, especially CPUs such as FPGAs and ASICs, which are closely related to machine learning technologies, and IOT technologies, which are also closely related to artificial intelligence technologies.

    About DevOps

    DevOps is a set of practices that combine software development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops) to improve the speed, efficiency, and quality of software delivery. improvement culture.

    In the following pages of this blog, we will discuss an overview of this DevOps technology and specific implementations such as Docker.

    Web Technology

    Web technology is a platform for technologies such as machine learning, artificial intelligence, and digital transformation.

    In the following pages of this blog, you will find an overview of web technologies (overview of Internet technologies, HTTP protocol, web servers, web browsers, web applications and programming technologies such as Javascript and React), implementation technologies (Javascript, React ), implementation techniques (Javascript, React, Clojure, Pyhton, etc.), specific applications (MAMP, MediaWiki (a variety of CMS (Contents Management System), WordPress, Fess (a search platform), ElasticSearch, etc.) and various applications ) and various applications (various applications presented at conferences and on the web) will be described.

      Microservices and multi-agent systems

      Microservices is an architectural style for functionally dividing an application into multiple services. An architectural style is a “style” of architecture, which is not only the structural design (architecture), but also the development and operation methods, organizational structure and management, and all other aspects of the development and operation of the structure. style.

      In the following pages of this blog, we will discuss the architecture, development style, testing, maintenance, and other aspects of microservices, and then describe a concrete implementation using Clojure.

      DB Technology

      As the wiki explains, “A database is a collection of information organized for easy retrieval and storage. A database is a collection of information organized for easy retrieval and storage, usually realized by a computer. A database is a collection of information organized for easy retrieval and storage. The data structure handled by the program and the data itself can be manipulated with less man-hours than in the case of proprietary implementations. It is the most important technology in modern information systems that handle huge amounts of data [source]. This is the most important technology in modern information systems that handle huge amounts of data.

      The advantage of using a database is that you can simply use a general-purpose data structure rather than implementing your own data structure in a program, and you can use a system that can ensure data consistency (data backup, etc.), which I will discuss later.

      In the following pages of this blog, we discuss various technologies related to this database.

      Search Technology

      Information is the basis of computer technology. It is meaningless to simply collect information, and in order to perform creative activities from the collected information, it is necessary to go through a cycle of “collecting,” “searching,” “finding,” “looking,” and “noticing. For each of these, there are corresponding technologies and ideas. In this article, I will discuss “search” technology (search technology).

      In the following pages of this blog, various technologies related to search technology are discussed in the .

      User Interface and DataVisualization

      Using a computer to process data is equivalent to creating value by visualizing the structure within the data. In addition, data itself can be interpreted in multiple ways from multiple perspectives, and in order to visualize them, we need a well-designed user interface.

      In the following pages of this blog, I will discuss various examples of this user interface, mainly focusing on papers presented at conferences such as ISWC.

      Stream Data Technology

      This world is full of dynamic data, not static data. For example, a huge amount of dynamic data is formed in factories, plants, transportation, economy, social networks, and so on. In the case of factories and plants, a typical sensor on an oil production platform makes 10,000 observations per minute, peaking at 100,000 o/m. In the case of mobile data, a mobile user in Milan makes 20,000 calls/SMS/data connections per minute, and 20,000 connections per minute. In the case of mobile data, mobile users in Milan make 20,000 calls/sms/data connections per minute, reaching 20,000 connections per minute and 80,000 connections at peak times, and in the case of social networks, Facebook, for example, observed 3 million likes per minute as of May 2013. as of May 2013.

      Use cases where these data appear include “What is the expected timing of failure when the turbine barring starts to vibrate in the last 10 minutes? What is the expected failure time when the turbine barring starts to vibrate, as detected in the last 10 minutes?” or “Is there public transportation where people are?” or “Who is discussing the top ten topics? These are just a few of the many granular issues that arise, and solutions to them are needed.

      In the following pages of this blog, we discuss real-time distributed processing frameworks for handling such stream data, machine learning processing of time series data, and application examples such as smart cities and Industry 4.0 that utilize these frameworks.

      Encryption and Security Technologies and Data Compression Techniques

        The rapid development of digital technology in recent years has promoted the distribution and sharing of information, continuously connecting the structure and functions of society. The importance of information encryption, security technologies to control access to information, and technologies to compress information is increasing.

        In the following pages of this blog discuss these encryption, security, and data compression technologies.

        Geospatial Information Processing

        The term “geospatial information” refers to information about location or information that is linked to location. For example, it is said that 80% of the information handled by the government used for LOD is linked to some kind of location information, and in an extreme case, if the location where the information occurred is recorded together with the information, all information can be called “geospatial information.

        By handling information in connection with location, it is possible to grasp the distribution of information even by simply plotting location information on a map. If you have data on roads and destinations linked to latitude and longitude, you can guide a person with a GPS device to a desired location, or track his or her movements. By taking the trajectory of how a person moves, it is possible to provide services based on location with information on past, present, and future events.

        By making good use of these features of location information, it will be possible to make new scientific discoveries, develop services in business, and solve various social problems.

        In the following pages of this blog, we will discuss how to use QGIS, a geospatial information platform, and how to combine it with R and various machine learning tools, as well as with Bayesian models.

        Sensor Data and IoT and WoT Technology

        The use of sensor information is a central element of IOT technology. There are various types of sensor data, but here we will focus on one-dimensional, time-varying information.

        There are two types of IOT approaches: one is to set up individual sensors for a specific measurement target and analyze the characteristics of the target in detail, and the other is to set up multiple sensors for multiple targets as described in “Application of Sparse Model to Anomaly Detection”, and select specific data from the obtained data to make decisions such as anomaly detection for a specific target.

        In the following pages of this blog, we will discuss various IOT standards (WoT, etc.), statistical processing as time series data, stochastic refinement models such as hidden Markov models, sensor placement optimization by inferior modular optimization, control of hardware such as BLE, smart cities, and a wide range of other areas of knowledge.